Soundings and Crossings
Doing Science at Sea: 1800–1970

Katharine Anderson, Helen M. Rozwadowski

978-0-88135-144-6 Soundings and Crossing

Soundings and Crossings

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi

Preface
Moving Targets xv
Eric L. Mills

Introduction
Soundings and Crossings 1
Katharine Anderson and Helen M. Rozwadowski

Section I
Disciplining the Ocean Environment

Every Ship a Floating Observatory
Matthew Fontaine Maury and the Acquisition of Knowledge at Sea 17
Penelope K. Hardy

The Surveyor’s St Lawrence
Route Science and Survey Work 49
Megan Barford

Pacific Islands and the Problem of Theorizing
The U.S. Exploring Expedition from Fieldwork to Publication 79
Alistair Sponsel

A Conflict of Interests
How International Marine Science Practices Shaped the Nineteenth-century Biotic Debate 113
Rodolfo John Alaniz

Section II
Defining Ocean Space for a New Century

The Hybrid Shore
The Marine Station Movement and Scientific Uses of the Littoral, 1843–1910 145
Antony Adler

Stations and Statistics
Paulus Hoek and the Transnational Discipline of Ocean Biology, 1871–1914 179

Robert-Jan Wille Marine Meteorology
Observing Regimes and Global Visions, 1918–1939 213
Katharine Anderson viii

Section III
Scientific Values at Sea

Imagining the Ocean
Marine Artists and Our Visions of the Marine World 245
Samantha Muka

Protecting Underwater Scientists
The Scripps Model in the History of Scientific Diving, 1949–1985 277
Jennifer A. Martin

Science, the Media and Development
The International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1959–1965 315
Franziska Torma

Bibliography of Works by Eric L. Mills 345

Index 357